'Book of Daniel'
Dan 11:7-8 "But from a branch of her roots one shall arise in his place, who shall come with an army, enter the fortress of the king of the North, and deal with them and prevail. And he shall also carry their gods captive to Egypt, with their princes and their precious articles of silver and gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the North."
The brother of Berenice, Ptolemy III Euergetes, ruled Egypt (246-221 B.C.) in the place of his father. Provoked by the assassination of his sister, Ptolemy III marched against the king of the north, which ignited a war that lasted some five years (246-241 B.C.). Ptolemy III, also called Euergetes or Benefactor, successfully defeated the king of the North and also led his armies deep into western Asia. From there, he brought back to Egypt the statues of the gods that had been carried off by the Persians.
Dan 11:9 "Also the king of the North shall come to the kingdom of the king of the South, but shall return to his own land."
After this humiliating defeat, Seleucus II Callinicus (the king of the North) sought to invade Egypt but was unsuccessful. After his death (by a fall from his horse) he was succeeded by his son Seleucus II Soter (227-223 B.C.), who was killed by conspirators while on a military campaign in Asia Minor. Seleucus III's brother, Antiochus III the Great, became the ruler in 223 at 18 years of age and reigned for 36 years (untill 187). The two sons (Seleucus III and Antiochus III) had sought to restore Syria's lost prestige by military conquest, the older son by invading Asia Minor and the younger son by attacking Egypt. Egypt had controlled all the territory north to the borders of Syria which included the land of Israel. Antiochus III succeeded in driving the Egyptians back to the southern borders of Israel in his campaign in 219-217.
Daniel 11:10-17 prophesied the conflicts between Antiochus III and Ptolemy IV Philopater (221-203 B.C.) and Ptolemy V Epiphanes (203-181).
Antiochus III was called the "Great" because of his military conquests. This period is significant for a number of reasons. It is another historical stepping-stone, providing context as to how the Jews came into contact with a subsequent Seleucid king.
Antiochus III was an extremely important personality, for during his reign Palestine fell under Seleucid control. His conflicts with Egypt are well documented. The record of these battles is readily accessible in secular histories, encyclopedias, and in well-researched commentaries.
Dan 11:18-19 "After this he shall turn his face to the coastlands, and shall take many. But a ruler shall bring the reproach against them to an end; and with the reproach removed, he shall turn back on him. Then he shall turn his face toward the fortress of his own land; but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found."
In 196 BC Antiochus III crossed the Hellespont into Thrace, where he claimed sovereignty over territory that had been won by Seleucus I in the year 281 BC. A war of harassment and diplomacy with Rome ensued. The Roman captain Scipio defeated Antiochus in a naval battle. Antiochus then agreed to pay a very heavy burden to the Romans for the peace treaty.
The defeated Antiochus the Great then returned to Syria. In 187 B.C., he entered the Temple of Elymais near Susa, possibly seeking the funds to meet the Roman stipulations. During the inhospitable visit, Antiochus III met his providential end at the hands of insurrectionists.